Timber Architecture


In Gniezno Poviat timber buildings are characterized by a specific charm. There have been preserved numerous relics of architecture of old Polish village built of timber, harmonized with the landscape. There are also numerous wooden churches surprising one with their construction and picturesque form and interior decoration. The largest number of relics of wooden architecture can be found in the Wielkopolski Ethnographic Park situated on the bank of Lednickie Lake. It is a museum presenting folk culture of Wielkopolska with all its elements: houses, wells, chapels, gardens and cultivated fields. The village is divided into two harmonising environments: a peasant one and a manor-grange one. The plan of the village is oval where several farms have been arranged, mostly from the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The oldest building in the open-air-museum is a farmhouse from Zdrój near Grodzisk Wielkopolski of the year 1602. Among the farmhouses there stands an inn, richly decorated with arcades, originating from the neighbourhood of Chodzież and a church from Wartkowice. Special attention should be drawn to a wooden chapel of 1765 with a baroque altar - a gift from primate Stefan Wyszyński. On a hill over the Lake Lednica there are three windmills of 19th century. From the hill one can see the island of Ledniczka on which there is a wooden belfry of 18th century.

The so-called little open-air museum enjoys particular interest. From among its buildings the oldest is a windmill of 1585 from Gryżyna near Kościan. Very interesting buildings are also those situated in Moraczewo - windmills of the turn of 19th and 20th centuries and the miller's farm (farmhouse, cowshed and barn) of the beginning of 19th century. In Rybitwy situated on the western bank of the Lake Lednica there is a wooden hut of an Olender settler of 1737, a folk school of the mid 19th century, a barn, a windmill and a granary.

Every year in the area of the open-air museum two folk events are organised: in March "Ritual Farewell to the Winter and Spring Welcome" and in June "Live Open-Air Museum.

Sacral architecture is represented by nine temples. The oldest of them are in Łubowo and Sokolniki.

Kiszkowo
The church under the invocation of St. John the Baptist. Added in 1733 to a brick chapel under the invocation of the Holy Virgin of the end of 17th century by the effort of the parish-priest Jan Wypijewski. In the chapel there is a painting of the Virgin Mary with the Holy Infant of 18th century in a contemporary silver dress. It is an oriented church of a trunk structure with a four-side tower in which there is placed Pilawa - primate Teodor Potocki's coat-of-arms. Interior decoration is baroque - the pulpit and baptismal font. The baroque Pieta of 2nd half of 17th century also deserves attention.

Łagiewniki Kościelne
Corpus Christi church built in 1741 with the efforts of the parish-priest Śliwiński. It is a one-nave oriented church of trunk structure with a four-side tower. It has a baroque interior with the main altar, four side altars with the statues of the evangelists and angels and paintings: the Holy Virgin of Częstochowa and Ecce Homo on wood. Next to the church there is a wooden belfry of 2nd half of 18th century, of a pole construction, covered with a gable roof.

Łubowo
St. Nicolas Church built in 1660 thanks to the efforts of Stanisław Dziannot, the suffragan of Kiev and Gniezno canon. In 1720 the chapel of the Holy Virgin of Consolation was added - funded by the Lutomskis - and in 1820 the tower was constructed. It is a one-nave church of a trunk structure. The baroque interior has a folk character. On the rood-screen beam there are sculptures of Christ the Crucified, the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Seven Dolours and of St. John of 2nd half of 17th century. The main altar is of mid 17th century with a painting of the Holy Virgin with the Holy Infant and statues of St. Satnislaus and St. Adalbert. Side altars and the altar in the chapel are of 17th century.

Niechanowo
St. James's church. It was built thanks to the efforts of priest Melchior Kiełkowicz. It was expanded in 1908 - the brick part of the nave and the tower were added. The church is of trunk structure and the wooden part is covered with a shingled roof. The main altar is late baroque with the painting depicting St. James and statues of St. Peter and St.Anthony. The interior is rococo of 18th century - the pulpit supported by an angel, the baptismal font with the statues of Adam and Eve next to the Tree of Eden, Moses and the cross in the finial. Additional furnishings are stalls, confessionals, two side altars with statues of the saints and paintings of 17th and 18th centuries.

Waliszewo
Church under the invocation of St. Catherine. It was erected in 1759 thanks to the foundation of Ludwik Riaucour, Gniezno canon. It is a one-nave oriented church of a trunk structure, boarded and strengthened. The interior is covered with a ceiling. On the rood-screen beam with the date 1795 there are gothic sculptures of the Blessed Virgin of the Seven Dolours and of St. John (the Crucifixion group) of 1st half of 15th century. In the main late baroque altar there are statues of St. Stanislaus and St. Adalbert of 1st half of 17th century. One side altar of 1st half of 17th c. with renaissance ornaments, the painting of the Holy Virgin in a predella and statues of St. Jadwiga and St. Elisabeth; the other baroque one of 2nd half of 18th c. with paintings depicting the Holy Virgin of Częstochowa and St. Catherine. The remaining historical monuments are a rococo pulpit and a baptismal font in the shape of a goblet of 2nd half of 18th century.

Sławno
St. Rosalie cemetery chapel erected in 1785, thanks to the foundation of priest Józef Sztolzman. A one-nave chapel of a trunk structure with a tower covered with an onion-shaped helmet with a lantern. Interior decoration is of the turn of 18th / 19th centuries. On the rood-screen beam there are statues of St. Rosalie and carvings of puttos holding an hourglass and a skull. In the main altar of 18th c. there is a modern painting depicting St. Rosalie. There are also two sie altars with statues of the Holy Virgin and St. Theresa.

Dębnica
Church under the invocation of St. Nicolas, erected in 1726 thanks to the foundation of Eleonora Latalska born Działyńska is a one-nave oriented temple of a trunk structure. In the rood-screen beam there is a crucifix of 1st half of 18th c. surrounded by glory and the Passion of Christ. Interior decoration is baroque with the main altar and two side altars with the statues of saints and oval paintings of St. Catherine and St. Jadwiga. The pulpit has an ornament in the regency style. Attention should also be paid to the baptismal font surmounted with a conopy with a carved scene of Christ's baptism and the Holy Father on the swan-shaped plinth of the utensil. In the temple there is a sandstone holy-water basin of the turn of 15th and 16th centuries. Next to the church there is a wooden belfry of 18th c.

Sokolniki
Church under the invocation of St. Stanislaus the Bishop. Erected in the years 1682-1712 thanks to the foundation of Adam Grudowicz and Wawrzyniec Kłosowski is a one-nave temple of a trunk structure with a chapel and a tower at the front covered with an onion-shaped helmet with a lantern. Inside there are fragments of a distemper polychromy of 1787 and 1886 depicting the scene of the Martyrdom of St. Stanislaus and figures of the saints as well as images of the founders. The interior is baroque and rococo. In the main altar there is a painting of the Holy Virgin with the Holy Infant in a silver rococo dress; at the bottom there is a scene of the martyrdom of St. Stanislaus. Next to it there are statues of St. Joachim and St. Anna. Side altars with paintings depicting St. Anna Samotrzeć and St. Joseph, The Raising from the Dead of Piotrowin and St. Francis' Vision as well as statues of St. Catherine and St. Laurence. There is a pulpit decorated with figures of the Evangelists on the plinth, there are confessionals, an organ, a set of benches and a stone, late gothic holy-water basin.

Pawłowo
Church under the invocation of St. Martin erected in 1762 thanks to the foundation of Gniezno chapter and Hilary Szembek, Gniezno cantor. It is a one-nave oriented temple of a trunk structure. Inside there are three 18th century altars. A carving depicting the Family of the Virgin Mary deserves particular attention.

Kamieniec
Church under the invocation of St. James the Apostle erected in the years 1722-1724 thanks to the foundation of Jan Cieński, a monk of Trzemeszno. It is an oriented church of a trunk construction with a tower, built on the plan of a Latin cross with a presbytery closed on three sides with rectangular chapels. On the rood-screen beam there is a crucifix and late-gothic statues of the Holy Virgin f the Seven Dolours and St. John the Evangelist. The interior decoration is of 17th and 18th centuries. In the main altar there is a painting depicting the Holy Virgin of Immaculate Conception in a silver baroque dress. In the upper level there is a picture of Jesus' Heart of the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. Two-storey baroque side altars are decorated with statues of the saints and paintings. In one of the altars in the central field there is a painting depicting St. Joseph with the Holy Infant in a silver dress of 1713. the interior is furnished with a late-baroque pulpit with carvings of Christ the Saviour and four Evangelists.

The following monuments of wooden architecture of Gniezno Poviat deserve attention: timber house of 19th c. in Czerniejewo at Miechowa Street and a wooden windmill of 1724 by the road to Nekla as well as a wooden belfry of 1st half of 19th c. in Ostrowite Prymasowskie.